Reading b: the bystander

Reading b: the bystander

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Question 1. How to make money online without paying anything 2018 the definition of a bully? What's the definition of a bystander? A person who is present at an incident but does not take part, an onlooker who does nothing to help.

Someone who is standing around. What's the Bystander Effect? The Bystander Effect occurs when individuals do NOT offer any means of help to a victim when other people are present. The Bystander Effect occurs when individuals do offer help to a victim when other people are present. What's the definition of an Assistant? What's the definition of a Victim?

Who is the bully in "The Walrus and the Carpenter" and why? The Carpenter is a bully because he eats the Oysters. The Walrus is the bully because he eats the oysters and he is the one who tricked them into taking a walk. Who is the assistant in "The Walrus and the Carpenter" and why? The Carpenter is the assistant because he joins in with eating the oysters. The Eldest Oyster is the assistant. Who is the bystander in "The Walrus and the Carpenter" and why?

The Eldest Oyster is the bystander because he did not speak up, he just did nothing. The other Oysters are the bystanders because they were innocent.Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read.

Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Bystander by James Preller. Bystander by James Preller. Eric is the new kid in seventh grade. Griffin wants to be his friend. When you're new in town, it's hard to know who to hang out with and who to avoid. Griffin seems cool, confident, and popular.

But something isn't right about Griffin. He always seems to be in the middle of bad things. And if Griffin doesn't like you, you'd better watch your back. There might be a target o Eric is the new kid in seventh grade. There might be a target on it.

reading b: the bystander

As Eric gets drawn deeper into Griffin's dark world, he begins to see the truth about Griffin: he's a liar, a bully, a thief. Eric wants to break away, do the right thing. But in one shocking moment, he goes from being a bystander. This title has Common Core connections. Get A Copy. Hardcoverpages.Teachers Pay Teachers is an online marketplace where teachers buy and sell original educational materials. Are you getting the free resources, updates, and special offers we send out every week in our teacher newsletter?

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Bystander effect

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Are you teaching a unit or lesson that includes racism, prejudices and stereotyping? Are you looking to teach your students more about being tolerant of others, whether it comes to a bystander situation or someone of another race, religion or culture? Check out these three activities on teaching stud. WorksheetsActivitiesHandouts. Add to cart.

Wish List. Bystander or Upstander? What is a bystander? What is an upstander? What should I do if I witness bullying? This activity answers those questions for students and puts them in real life situations to decide what they would do if they witnessed bullying. The activity has an introduction PowerPoint where students learn th.

What do you get when you combine literacy, role playing, drawing, imagination, and team collaboration based on Julia Cook's book Bully B.If you witnessed an emergency happening right before your eyes, you would certainly take some sort of action to help the person in trouble, right?

While we might all like to believe that this is true, psychologists suggest that whether or not you intervene might depend upon the number of other witnesses present. The term bystander effect refers to the phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress.

When an emergency situation occurs, observers are more likely to take action if there are few or no other witnesses. Being part of a large crowd makes it so no single person has to take responsibility for an action or inaction.

reading b: the bystander

In one experimentsubjects were placed in one of three treatment conditions: alone in a room, with two other participants, or with two confederates who pretended to be normal participants.

As the participants sat filling out questionnaires, smoke began to fill the room. On Friday, March 13,year-old Genovese was returning home from work. As she approached her apartment entrance, she was attacked and stabbed by a man later identified as Winston Moseley. The attack first began at AM, but it was not until AM that someone first contacted police. An initial article in the New York Times sensationalized the case and reported a number of factual inaccuracies.

An article in the September issue of American Psychologist concluded that the story is largely misrepresented mostly due to the inaccuracies repeatedly published in newspaper articles and psychology textbooks. While Genovese's case has been subject to numerous misrepresentations and inaccuracies, there have been numerous other cases reported in recent years. The bystander effect can clearly have a powerful impact on social behavior, but why exactly does it happen?

Why don't we help when we are part of a crowd? There are two major factors that contribute to the bystander effect. First, the presence of other people creates a diffusion of responsibility. Because there are other observers, individuals do not feel as much pressure to take action.

The responsibility to act is thought to be shared among all of those present.

OET Reading Part B with Jay from E2Language!

The second reason is the need to behave in correct and socially acceptable ways. When other observers fail to react, individuals often take this as a signal that a response is not needed or not appropriate. Researchers have found that onlookers are less likely to intervene if the situation is ambiguous.

In the case of Kitty Genovese, many of the 38 witnesses reported that they believed that they were witnessing a "lover's quarrel," and did not realize that the young woman was actually being murdered. A crisis is often chaotic and the situation is not always crystal clear.

Onlookers might wonder exactly what is happening. During such moments, people often look to others in the group to determine what is appropriate. When they see that no one else is reacting, it sends a signal that perhaps no action is needed. What can you do to overcome the bystander effect?

reading b: the bystander

Some psychologists suggest that simply being aware of this tendency is perhaps the greatest way to break the cycle. When faced with a situation that requires action, understand how the bystander effect might be holding you back and consciously take steps to overcome it.

However, this does not mean you should place yourself in danger. But what if you are the person in need of assistance? How can you inspire people to lend a hand? One often recommended tactic is to single out one person from the crowd.

Make eye contact and ask that individual specifically for help.Leaders of Nazi Germany driven by ideological goals formed the policies.

Civil servants, policeand military forces —servants of the state—and their collaborators in other countries implemented the escalating racial measures, including anti-Jewish measures, which culminated in mass murder and genocide. The Holocaust was a series of events that happened over a long period of time. Jews were dehumanized, deprived of many legal rights, became the victims of both random and organized violence, and were socially if not physically isolated from the rest of the population.

Many onlookers to events who approved or tolerated what they witnessed were also involved. Within Nazi Germany many individuals became active or semi-active participants in Nazi racial and antisemitic policies. Individual citizens chose to be involved when, out of a sense of duty, or prejudice, or some opportunity for business or other personal gain, they voluntarily denounced their co-workers and neighbors to the police because of their alleged wrongdoings as Jews, anti-Hitlerites, or gays.

Teenagers in many communities became involved when they enjoyed their newfound power to harass with impunity Jewish classmates or even adults to whom youth were generally taught to defer—thereby contributing to the isolation of Jews. Many ordinary Germans became involved when they acquired Jewish businesses, homes, or belongings sold at bargain prices or benefited from reduced business competition as Jews were driven from the economy.

Outside Nazi Germany, countless non-Germans, from leaders, public officials, and police to ordinary citizens became involved by collaborating with the Nazi regime following the German occupation of their countries during World War II. Individuals helped in their roles as clerks and confiscators of property; as railway and other transportation employees; as managers or participants in roundups and deportations ; as informants; sometimes as perpetrators of violence against Jews on their own initiative; and sometimes as hands-on killers in killing operations, notably in the mass shootings of Jews and others in occupied Soviet territories in which thousands of eastern Europeans participated.

As German and local police found willing helpers lured by the opportunity for material gain or rewards, Jews in hiding in countries from the occupied Netherlands to occupied Poland faced daunting odds of survival.

This form of help, if discovered, especially in Nazi Germany and occupied eastern Europe was punished by arrest and often execution. A larger group of witnesses to the victims' suffering assisted in lesser ways. A small minority publicly expressed their solidarity with the persecuted—notably mostly isolated clergymen in some communities in Nazi Germany and occupied countries. Other individuals assisted the victims by purchasing food or other supplies for Jewish households to whom shops became closed; by providing false identity papers or warnings about upcoming roundups; by storing belongings for those on the run that could be sold off little by little for food.

Jewish survivors often vividly remembered these moments because of their humane and exceptional character. They show the possibilities for acting in ways more—or less—beneficial to the victims. More research on the social dynamics within affected groups and communities across different regions and countries is needed. Future research should also provide a better understanding of how in different places and times, people were mobilized or came to do what they did—or did not do—to facilitate the persecution and mass murder of other human beings.

Barnett, Victoria.

Bringing in the Bystander®

Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Feldman, Gerald D. New York: Berghahn Books, Fullbrook, Mary. Gross, Jan T. Golden Harvest: Events at the Periphery of the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, A little after 3 a. Serial killer Winston Moseley was out to victimize someone that night. Genovese became his target. When he followed her, she ran.

Help me! When lights in surrounding apartments flipped on and one man called out his window, the attacker ran and hid in the shadows. But no one came out to help. So Moseley returned and finished stabbing, then robbed and raped Genovese. She continued to cry for help. The attack lasted about 30 minutes. Not one stepped outside to help her.

The bystander effect describes situations in which a group of bystanders witness harm being done, yet do nothing to help or stop the harmful activity.

According to the U. Department of Justicea bystander is present at 70 percent of assaults and 52 percent of robberies. The percentage of people who help a victim varies widely, by the type of crime, the environment, and other key variables. The bystander effect can occur with many types of violent and nonviolent crimes. It encompasses behaviors such as bullying, cyber bullying, or drunk driving, and societal issues such as damage to property or the environment. If witnesses to an incident are in a group, they assume others will take action.

The more witnesses there are, the less likely it is that anyone will act. Individual responsibility becomes group responsibility. In a well-known studyresearchers found that, when bystanders were alone, 75 percent helped when they thought a person was in trouble. However, when a group of six people were together, only 31 percent helped. In this state, people are more likely to do things they would never do individually.

This deindividuation, or perceived loss of individuality, is often associated with mob actions or notorious massacres. We all have the ability to overcome the bystander effect. In the larger picture, get to know your neighbors and keep an eye out for their well-being. Speak with a coworker who seems troubled or distressed. Personally, you can practice reaching out to others in need.

Become a volunteer. Set an example for your family and friends. Ultimately, by helping others, you benefit, too.Trainings aim to engage campus community members as stake holders in issues of sexual violence, equip them with skills to identify and intervene safely in risky situations, and build empathy for survivors of sexual violence. Components of the program include an introduction to bystander responsibility within communities, local community examples and statistics, active learning exercises about the sexual violence continuum, and discussions about identifying risky situations and choosing safe, effective interventions.

At the close of training participants sign bystander pledges and receive ABC Active Bystanders Care cards as reminders of the decision making process for intervening. Facilitators and participants discuss what makes intervention more or less difficult in particular situations. Facilitators also help participants define sexual violence and discuss concrete examples of it, while providing statistics about sexual violence within their community and more broadly.

The program can be administered in 1 session or 3 sessions. Each session lasts approximately 90 minutes. A two-person team, one male and one female, present to single sex or co-ed groups. Trainings are customized to incorporate local resources and relevant examples. General college student body, single gender or co-ed groups, customizable for student athletes, Greek life and student grounds.

In addition to the prevention goal, the program has a research component which seeks to measure the effectiveness of the prevention program with different constituencies. Educating members of college communities about the realities of sexual assault and equipping them with tools to identify and prevent rape can help create important cultural shifts away from perpetuating and towards preventing assault and harassment.

However, Soteria Solutions prefers to keep names of participating institutions private. Incorporating local examples, statistics, and resources allows Bringing In the Bystander to be relevant to participants. Such expansive integration may require significant efforts to generate buy in and support at both administrative and student levels. As with every campus, the most successful implementation will consider the unique experiences of all community members and seek their input before bringing a new program to campus.

There are 3 pricing options. Prices are not published; administrators wishing to find out price information must contact Prevention Innovations. Banyard, V. Sexual violence prevention: The role of stages of change. Journal of Interpersonal Violence25, Reducing sexual violence on campus: The role of student leaders as empowered bystanders. Journal of College Student Development50, Measurement and correlates of pro-social bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence.

Violence and Victims23, Sexual violence prevention through bystander education: an experimental evaluation. Journal of Community Psychology35, Cares, A.

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